PUMPS

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This is the newest post in category WIND AND WATER ENGINEERING.

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The pump that al-Jazari copied from Ctesibius was similar to the traditional pump used on many farms insuring the early 1900s. However, the o-ring did not maintain a good vacuum, so the pump needed to be placed in or near the water..Water could be pushed many meters up from the pump. The pump could be powered by animals or by a crankshaft connected to a waterwheel..
Al-Jazari also built other less-sophisticated devices to lift water.
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SHIPS AND BOATS

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Muslims did not invent the lateen sail.
Lateen means that the sails are nearly parallel to the keel.
Both square lateen sails and triangular lateen sails were used by the Romans during the 4th century. Modern lantern sails are almost always triangular.
An article at muslimheritage.com misidentifies a “ship’s boat” (a rowed boat to travel between ship and shore, also used by Christians of that era) as a “lifeboat”.
Actually, Muslim ship captains were not much concerned with the lives of non-Muslim members of the crew.
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WIND POWER AND WATER POWER

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Muslims did not invent the windmill. Windmills to pump irrigation water may have been in use in Babylonia in the 17th century BC.
Water wheels attached to a bridge were a Roman invention.
Water wheels attached to a ship moored to a bridge were invented by Christian Europeans during the “Dark Ages”.
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ISLAMIC GOLDEN AGE DAMS

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This is the oldest post in category WIND AND WATER ENGINEERING.

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The 1001 Inventions book is misleading in its praise of dams built by Muslims in Spain.
The dams built while Spain was under Muslim rule were not as tall as the Roman dams built in Spain, and all of the Muslim dams, such as the 3-or-4-meter tall dam at Córdoba, eventually failed and are now merely ruins. (Except the “dams” on thon e Turia River, which are merely bumps only 2 meters high that divert water into irrigation canals.)
By comparison, 2 of the stone-clad earthen dams built in Spain by the Roman Empire are today intact and still working.
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