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This is the newest post in category OTHER SCIENCES.

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Muslims invented a blazing process that kept colors bright.
Damascus steel was not invented by Muslims, but was copied from the wootz steel developed by Hindus in South India. It is a stretch for Muslims to call this Indian technology “nanotechnology”.
Alkalis were known to many ancient civilizations.
Sulfuric acid was made in ancient times.
Muslims copied alchemy techniques from the Byzantines.
end of synopsis > . Continue reading EARLY MATERIALS, METALS AND CHEMICALS [PRIOR TO GEBER]


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The Romans in the 3rd century, produced sodium hydroxide, and it might have also been made in pre-Islamic times by the soap manufacturers of what is now Syria).
In the Roman colony of Alexandria, manganese dioxide had been added to glass to remove the green tint.
Byzantine alchemists wrote about changing lead into gold.
end of synopsis > . Continue reading ALCHEMY SHORTLY BEFORE GEBER


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Nearly all of the alchemy that Muslim websites attribute to Geber either was known prior to the time of Geber, or else was the work centuries later of a Christian known as Pseudo-Geber.
Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) writings but not Pseudo-Geber writings have originals written in Arabic.
Geber wrote in a long-winded repetitive literary style, and mentioned Allah, but Pseudo-Geber wrote in the short, clear and systematic literary style of a Westerner.
Expanding on what Greeks had written, Geber emphasized that 3 (=earth), 8 (=air), 1 (=fire) and 5 (=water) added up to 17, which was the base of his theory of balance for understanding everything.
He used Arabic numerology on the consonants in the names of elements to explain their nature and properties.
He borrowed from Chinese alchemists an interest in compounds of mercury and sulfur, and the search for an elixir of immortality.
end of synopsis > . Continue reading JABIR IBN HAYYAN AND PSEUDO-GEBER


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Abū Rqayhān al-Bīrūnī (973 – 1048) sought to prove that Allah created a perfect universe, so he fudged the results to match the results he had expected.
His experiment consisted of heating liquid mercury until it turned into a red powder, and then weighing the powder expecting to confirm that its weight had not changed. He did not know that the red powder was mercury(II) oxide, and did not know that an oxide contains oxygen atoms, which increases its weight. Further heating decompose the red powder into vapors.
He and other Muslims who repeated his findings had no understanding of simple chemistry.


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Al-Nuwayrī,claimed that the mountain Qāf has roots under every city on Earth, and will shake a root when ordered to do so by Allah.
Al-Kindi repeated the claim by Aristotle that winds trapped under the surface of the Earth push up the land, causing earthquakes.
Al- Biruni analyzed the the different types of soil particles in the Ganges River from its source to the Bay of Bengal…He found fossils of sea shells high above the sea, convincing him that the land had risen.
end of synopsis > . Continue reading GEOLOGY


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Al-Jahiz wrote the “Book of Animals”, which mostly borrowed from Aristotle. It mentions that predators eat prey, but makes no mention of competition within a species.
Al Tusi believed this “great chain” of Aristotle was a plan of Allah to create beings each more nearly perfect than the previous creation.
His theory is missing Darwin’s key concepts of a branching tree and natural selection by survival of the fittest. Rocks are a rung of the ladder near the bottom.
Angels as the top rung, which contradicts the Quran teaching that angels were created before humans.
end of synopsis > . Continue reading EVOLUTION


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Muslims copied from the Chinese the grafting of the fruit-producing branches of one tree to the roots of another tree.
Muslims also copied the idea of compacting the soil around fruit trees, which probably did more harm than good.
Muslims were the first to cultivate the tulip.
They were not the first to rotate crops.
Muslims brought crops they found on lands they conquered to other parts of their empire. Some other posts about agriculture are in the GOLDEN AGE CULTURAL group and the GOLDEN AGE FOOD AND PERSONAL ITEMS group.
end of synopsis > . Continue reading AGRICULTURE


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Ibn Duraid Al-Azdi’s weather forecasting method was that black clouds moving like fully loaded camels climbing a sand dune indicated it would rain.
The sea captain Ahmad Ibn Mājid wrote about the typhoon.
Al-Bīrūnī incorrectly thought that the air extended all the way to the moon, and that the friction of the moon traveling through the air heats up the air at the equator.
Al-Kindi correctly wrote that rising hot air causes winds.
Muslim astrologers thought that the moon controlled the weather.
end of synopsis > . Continue reading WEATHER