UNIVERSITIES

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This is the newest post in category CULTURAL.

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Zoroastrians, Hindus, and Christians had full universities long before the Muslims had “universities” that taught only the Quran and sharia law.
A university and medical school was founded in the 5th century at Nalanda in India, but was later destroyed by invading Muslim armies.
In the (Orthodox Christian) Byzantine Empire, the University of Constantinople was founded in 425 AD with 31 chairs for law, philosophy,medicine, geometry, astronomy, music, rhetoric and other subjects.
A cathedral school for educating Catholic clergy in Toledo Spain in 527 was established before the birth of the prophet Mohammed.
Alcuin of York taught the Greek classics in mathematics and natural philosophy (Trivium and Quadrivium) shortly after Muslims established their first school teaching the Quran and sharia law.
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TRANSLATING HIEROGLYPHICS PRIOR TO THE ROSETTA STONE

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Ibn Wahshiyya (probably a Sabian star-worshiper from Persia) wrote a book about ancient alphabets.
He compared writing written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to writing written in a language similar to that used by Coptic priests of his day, and decoded the meaning of many of the words.

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THE YELLOW BADGE AND DHIMMITUDE

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Under dhimmitude, Muslim superiority was expressed through numerous ways, including laws that established what colors, clothing, hats or badges non-Muslims were required to wear.
Christians and Jews were sometimes physically branded.

The First Crusade was the result of Turks murdering and torturing Christians.

The Barbary States captured American ships and enslaved the crews.

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REASON AND REVELATION IN ISLAM

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The Mu’tazili school of Islamic theology taught the use of reason and rational thought. It flourished in the Basra and Baghdad during the 8th to 10th centuries.
Al-Ash’ari of Basra was a Mu’tazilite at age 40 he had a dreams in which the prophet Mohammed told him to support the hadiths and reject rationalism.
Shia Ismailis (often called the “Seveners”, believed in using reason, and played a major role in the Islamic Golden Age.
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703 – 1792) founded the Salafi movement, and sought to purify Islam, and in “Kitab al-Tawhid” described Christians and Jews as sorcerers who believe in devil worship, and that the punishment for such sorcerers is beheading by a sword.l
The Muslim Brotherhood is another movement that seeks to purify Islam.
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TRANSLATING BOOKS INTO ARABIC

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This is the oldest post in category CULTURAL

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Christians, Sabians and Muslims [and also Zoroastrians, Hindus and Jews] translated from mostly Greek and Roman Empire books into Arabic.
For example, Abu Yahya Ibn al-Batriq translated from Greek into Arabic some works of Galen of Pergamon, Hippocrates and Ptolemy, and Baghdad mathematician Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf translated Euclid’s “Elements” from Greek.
The Abbasid Caliph al-Mamun may have financed travel to Byzantium to purchase many books.
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