1550-1900 ASTRONOMY

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Taqi ad-Din built an observatory near Istanbul, and built a 90 degree quadrant into a wall, which is called a mural quadrant.
He wrote about a telescope using two lense he had copied from a Greek design. Taqi ad-Din did not claim he ever used this telescope to look at the sky,.
He observed a comet, interpreting it as a good omen. Soon afterwards the Ottoman army was sickened with the plague. As a result the highest Sunni religious authority of the Ottoman Empire ordered the destruction of Taqi ad-Din’s observatory, and ordered that only religious authorities would be permitted to operate astronomical observatories.

Mohammed al-Rudani combined astrology and astronomy by painting a globe with the outlines of the myths of the constellations, and surrounding it with a framework.
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Taqi al-Din copied the primitive “steam engine” of Hero of Alexandria, and copied the water pump of Ctesibius.
Muhammad Baqir Yazdi discovered 9,363,584 and 9,437,056 to be a pair of amicable numbers (two different numbers so related that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number).
The very beautiful Taj Mahal in India was much smaller than the Hagia Sophia built by Byzantine Christians 1100 years earlier.
An oil well 35 meters deep was dug in what is now Baku Azerbaijan.
The “smallpox vaccination” performed in the Ottoman Empire in 1717 was merely variolation (a method invented in China or India which uses the dangerous smallpox virus).
Frederick Akbar Mahomed at Guy’s hospital in London continued the research that had been started decades earlier by Richard Bright on the correlation between high blood pressure and acute inflammation of the kidney. He asked other physicians to collect the same data on their patients,
Jamal-al-Din al-Afghānī falsely claimed Darwin’s theory of evolution was invented earlier by al-Tusi of the Islamic Golden Age.
end of synopsis > Continue reading 1550-1900 OTHER SCIENCE


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A storyteller wrote a few sentences about the city of Istanbul celebrating (the anniversary of ?) the legendary “flights” of the Çelebi brothers.
The first flight is similar to the myth of ibn Firnas flying by attaching feathers to his arms. The second story involves a Christian using eagle wings and gunpowder, but modern retelling changes his religion to Muslim.
In 1562, two Greeks dove and surfaced in a primitive submarine in the river Tagus in Spain near Toledo. Turks changed the story to make it a Turk in Turkey.
end of synopsis > Continue reading FLYING MACHINES AND SUBMARINES