MUSLIM PLASTIC SURGERY AND TRACHEOTOMY

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Al-Zahrawi did not invent the procedures he used to fix broken noses and to perform plastic surgery on the nose and earlobes. The Sushruta Samhita medical encyclopedia of India, the 1st century Roman “De Medicina” medical encyclopedia of Aulus Cornelius Celsus, and the 4th century Byzantine Roman physician Oribasius in his 70-volume medical encyclopedia “Synagogue Medicae” (Medical Compilations) all described how to repair broken noses.

Al-Zahrawi did not invent tonsillectomy surgery. It was performed in the 1st century by Aulus Cornelius Celsus, and probably earlier in India.
Al-Zahrawi was not the first to perform surgery on enlarged thyroid glands.
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800px-shushrut_statue

statue of Shushrut, a Hindu in what is now India, who was the father of plastic surgery

NOSE
Al-Zahrawi did not invent the procedures he used to fix broken noses and to perform plastic surgery on the nose and earlobes. The Sushruta Samhita medical encyclopedia of India, the 1st century Roman “De Medicina” medical encyclopedia of Aulus Cornelius Celsus, and the 4th century Byzantine Roman physician Oribasius in his 70-volume medical encyclopedia “Synagogue Medicae” (Medical Compilations) all described how to repair broken noses and how to use flaps of skin from the cheeks and forehead to reconstruct earlobes and reconstruct noses that had been cut off as punishment for crimes. (Source is http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rhinoplasty

Galen of Pergamon described cosmetic nose jobs for the rich.
Al-Zahrawi was not the first to perform surgery to remove nasal polyps. “The original Greek-language texts of the Byzantine medical writers … were studied in order to identify the early knowledge of the definition, symptoms, conservative treatments, and surgical intervention in cases of this disease … The first meticulous intranasal surgical removal of polyps was described. These techniques, obviously developed during the Hellenistic period initially influenced European medicine and later the rest of the world.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11007093/


EARS
Al-Zahrawi was not the first to perform delicate surgery on the ear. A National Institute of Health article says:
“surgical techniques in diseases of the ear during Byzantine times (324-1453 A.D.)
METHODS: The original Greek language texts of the Byzantine medical writers were studied to research early otologic knowledge of symptomatology,conservative treatments, and surgical confrontation of diseases of the ear.
… special instruments and apparatus. Among these were identified otitis, rupture of the eardrum, hemorrhage from the ears, deficiency of hearing and deafness, vertigo, tinnitus, and ear wax. Furthermore, in these early texts, there were also described some surgical techniques in cases of atresia of the external auditory canal, of defects in or lack of the pinna, and for removal of foreign bodies and fleshy tumors. Some of the earliest hearing aids were also mentioned.

From the study of the original works of Byzantine writers, it is evident that numerous treatments and surgical techniques relating to otology were practiced; these were derived not only from compilation of knowledge obtained from the ancient Greek medical sources, a considerable part of which are now lost, but also enriched by Byzantine physicians’ personal experience. This knowledge influenced medieval European medicine…”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10337986/?i=2&from=%2F11007093%2Frelated

The Byzantines, long before al-Zahrawi, had performed delicate surgery to remove polyps in the canal on the inside of the ear.

THROAT
Al-Zahrawi modified the shape of a Byzantine Empire medical instrument for grasping things to invent an instrument for removing objects stuck in the throat as an alternative to doing a tracheotomy.
Al-Zahrawi did not invent the tongue depressor. They were in use in Roman times. (Wikipedia cites source “Surgical Instruments in Greek and Roman Times” by John Stewart Milne, pages 59 and 79.)
Al-Zahrawi did not invent tonsillectomy surgery. It was performed in the 1st century by Aulus Cornelius Celsus, and probably earlier in India.
Al-Zahrawi was not the first to perform surgery on enlarged thyroid glands.. It was a high-risk operation performed by the ancients, usually to prevent death by suffocation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20401481/

Image by Alokprasad at en.wikipedia, via Wikimedia Commons
Image credit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shushrut_statue.jpg

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