Dyeing in Fes, Morocco
Chemists in Muslim Spain used crystallization to remove impurities of iron sulfate from the substance that was used to make dyes stick to the cloth.

This resulted in bright colors instead of muddy colors.

Image cropped from image by Michal Borowski (41646), via Wikimedia Commons.
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Edip Yüksel falsely claims that Quran verse 75:4 reveals the scientific fact that no two people have identical fingerprints.
Actually, Quran verse 75:4 (John Medows Rodwell translation) says “his very finger tips are We able evenly to replace”. The verse is saying that after you die, Allah is able to restore your entire body whole again.

The Arabic word banānahu means finger joints or fingertips.
Nuri & Hoque had a unique comment about the mention of fingertips in verse 75:4
Their footnote mentioned that man has fingers superior to those of animals. I suppose they meant man’s opposable thumbs.

Image by United States Department of Commerce, via Wikimedia Commons.
Color saturation adjusted by William Siepmann.
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Ibn Duraid Al-Azdi’s weather forecasting method was that black clouds moving like fully loaded camels climbing a sand dune indicated it would rain.

Image by Jessie Eastland, via Wikimedia Commons.
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Photograph of a modern vertical declining sundial similar to ibn al-Shatir’s sundial
(Ibn al-Shatir did not use Roman numerals.)

In the 14th century the astronomer ibn al-Shatir in Damascus tilted the face of his sundial to be inclined at an angle of 56.5 degrees (90 degrees minus his latitude).
This made the face of the sundial parallel to the plane of the equator, so the sundial told time the same way as a sundial at the North Pole. It divided the day into 24 hours of equal length.
It was not used much, because prayer time in Islam was instead based on ordinary sundial hours that are 1/12 of the time from sunrise to sunset.

Image by Wilson44691, via Wikimedia Commons.
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Pakistani-American Muslim neurosurgeon Ayub Khan Ommaya (1930 – 2008) was educated at Oxford in England. All of his grandchildren have British first names. He invented the concept of implanting a reservoir under the scalp of someone with brain cancer (the reservoir could hold chemotherapy drugs or morphine to kill pain, and release them into the fluid of the brain.

Image by Patrick J. Lynch and Kuebi = Armin Kübelbeck, via Wikimedia Commons.
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