LOOMS, SPINNING WHEEL, MAKING PAPER AND THE PRINTING PRESS

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Muslims did not invent the treadle loom. It was in use in China in 2000 BC. The spinning wheel was probably invented in India.

Both the manufacture of paper, and the use of a drop hammer to pound the wood into pulp were Chinese inventions.
Muslims did not invent the flywheel or crankshaft or the crank combined with a connecting rod.

The Chinese invented the printing press and movable type.

A Muslim pen with an ink reservoir in the year 973 may not have worked well.

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722px-warsztat-svg

foot-powered treadle loom invented in China


TREADLE LOOM
Muslims did not invent the treadle loom. The treadle loom was in use in China in 2000 B.C. and later spread westward to India and Persia.


SPINNING WHEEL
Muslims did not invent the spinning wheel. Encyclopedia Britannica says the spinning wheel was probably invented in India.


DROP HAMMER USED TO MAKE PAPER
Muslims did not invent the camshaft trip hammer, also called the drop hammer or tilt hammer, which was used by the Greeks, Romans and Chinese.
The claim is false that Muslims invented it to automate the mashing of wood in making paper.
In the year 793, when Muslims brought captured papermakers to Baghdad as prisoners of war, the tilt hammer was already in widespread use in China, especially in processing rice.
http://books.google.com/books?id=SeGyrCfYs2AC&pg=PA184&lpg=PA184&dq=Chinese+pedal+trip+hammer&source=bl&ots=-nmALsIOKJ&sig=v1dTaQs5gR-IlHrWEtLT8E3yx3E&hl=en&sa=X&ei=GYryUpPlH9CGogSmvoCADw&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAw
Muslims in Baghdad, like the Romans, used water wheels to power the drop hammers.
Since mulberry bark was not available in Baghdad, the Muslims applied the wood pulp to a surface of linen instead of a surface of mulberry bark.


CRANKSHAFT
Al-Jazari in the 12th century did not invent the crankshaft or the crank combined with a connecting rod which convert between reciprocating motion and continuous rotating motion. They had been used by the Romans. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crank_(mechanism)


FLYWHEEL
Al-Jazari in the 12th century did not invent the flywheel. Flywheels were in use in potter’s wheels in 4500 BC, and as grinding wheels for sharpening tools prior to the time of Al-Jazari.
The modern heavy flywheel for smoothing the motion from the output of a steam engine did not exist at the time of Al-Jazari. The only Muslim method for smoothing out the motion was to power multiple suction water pumps from one water wheel.

INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS

Although Muslims printed multiple copies of the Quran on paper by carving entire pages onto wooden blocks, they were not the first to print a document by this printing press process. For example, in 868 Chinese printed a Buddhist religious text by this process.

The Chinese invented the movable type concept of molding individual characters from a mixture of clay and glue, and then typesetting a page from the individual characters. Koreans improved on this process by pouring molten metal into molds of the shapes of individual characters.

Gutenberg’s contribution was to print enormous numbers of copies of the same document.by creating replacement typeset pages when the metal typesetting wore out.

A pen with an ink reservoir was presented in 973 AD to Ma’ād al-Mu’izz (931- 975), the caliph of the Maghreb. It could be held upside-down without leaking. No one repeated this invention, so perhaps it may not have worked well.

Image by Bastian, via Wikimedia Commons
image credit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Warsztat.svg

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