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Muslims observed Viking, Hindu and African cultures.
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Ibn Fadlan (880? – 940?) was an ambassador and Muslim missionary to Russia where he witnessed a ship burial by the Rus (Vikings) and met the leader of the Volga Bulgars.
Al-Masudi (896 – 956) wrote books about the history, geography, social life, and religious customs of India, Greece, Rome and the Jews.
He wrote about politics and social, economic, religious, and cultural matters, such as pearl diving and burial customs. His books contained many untrue stories he had heard.
He also visited the eastern coast of Africa. His writings on the customs of India were much more detailed than what Herodotus had written, and compared the gods of Hinduism to the angels in Islam.
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