ARCHITECT FAZLUR RAHMAN KHAN

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Structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan was a Bangladeshi-American who obtained a Ph.D. in structural engineering from the University of Illinois.

His 1963 design of the 42 story tall DeWitt Chestnut apartment building was the first to use steel load-bearing exterior walls (called tube walls) to support part of the weight of a building.
The (non-Muslim) designers of the twin World Trade Center towers 1 and 2 in New York City carried this concept further.

Khan’s 1970 design of the Sears Tower in Chicago used 3 rows of 3 buildings each, joined together to look like one building. This is called bundled tube construction, and was copied by most super-tall buildings for the next 25 years.
I assume that Khan was an Ismaili Shia Sevener.
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sears_willis_tower

Sears Tower under construction in Chicago in 1974

STEEL WEIGHT-BEARING EXTERIOR WALLS
Architect and structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan (1929 – 1982) was a Bangladeshi-American who obtained a Ph.D. in structural engineering from the University of Illinois.
He implemented several innovations to reduce swaying of buildings in windy Chicago.
His 1963 design of the 42 story tall DeWitt Chestnut apartment building was the first to use steel load-bearing exterior walls (called tube walls) to support part of the weight of a building.
http://www.som.com/projects/dewitt_chestnut_apartments

In late 1964 in his design of the John Hancock Center in Chicago, he was the first to use visible X-bracing on the exterior of a large office building.  
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1343606792322264&id=100000188682277&set=gm.1880035612222987&source=48&__tn__=E

In January 1964 the (non-Muslim) designers of the twin World Trade Center towers 1 and 2 in New York City unveiled their plans for using a radically different design of no interior columns (except for a central tube containing stairways, elevators and pipes), but a very thick load-bearing steel exterior wall to support most of the weight of the building.

Khan’s 1970 design of the Sears (now Willis) Tower in Chicago copied from the New York World Trade Center design but he made his building six percent taller and made 3 rows of 3 buildings each, joined together to look like one building. This is called bundled tube construction, and was copied by most super-tall buildings for the next 25 years.
The Sears Tower was the world’s tallest building from 1973 until 1998. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1339146042768339&id=100000188682277&set=gm.1877177292508819&__tn__=E
I assume that Khan was an Ismaili Shia Sevener because he received an award from an Ismaili Shia Sevener organization.


THE END OF BUNDLED TUBE DESIGNS
Around the year 2000, several lower-cost new technologies replaced the bundled tube design.
Often the reason for building super-tall buildings was as status symbols, but bundled tube designs could not be slender. Thus they would contain more floor space than could be leased in that city.


Image by Steveboerger, via Wikimedia Commons.
image credit https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sears_Willis_Tower.jpg

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